Cape Cod Beer has teamed up with Barnstable Clean Water Coalition to create Clean Water Wednesdays/Mondays, an educational series held at Cape Cod Beer. Join the experts as we deep dive into topics that are affecting not only our water on Cape Cod but globally as well! #CleanWaterMatters
If you want to be part of Clean Water Wednesdays, you can purchase a Clean Water Wednesday 20 oz glass for $6 from Cape Cod Beer's online store.. and they will either ship it to you.. or you can stop by and pick it up! A dollar from every glass sold goes to support Barnstable Clean Water Coalition. Order glasses for shipping here.
Clean Water Wednesdays - 2023
The Washashore Problem & an Artful Solution
This month we’re tackling marine debris, our reliance on plastics, and its impact on our oceans. Living on Cape Cod, we are quite literally surrounded by this pollution on a constant basis. Want to learn how we can play a part in fighting this global crisis? Join us at Cape Cod Beer on Monday, January 23rd at 6:30pm to hear from a local expert and an artist who are committed to addressing this problem in different ways!
Laura Ludwig, director, and founder of the Marine Debris & Plastics Program at the Center for Coastal Studies, turns her passion into leadership through her work to fight the ocean pollution crisis. In 2012, Laura developed a “Beach Brigade” of 300 volunteers who work together to clean our shorelines. Laura will be sharing her knowledge and experience on plastic debris in our oceans and what we can do to help.
However, the informative night doesn’t end there! Ever wonder what can be done with the plastic once it’s collected off the shore? Sarah Thornington, a Cape Cod photographer, and artist has found a valuable answer. As seen on CBS Boston, CapeCodXplore, and more, Sarah has found a new meaning to the word “upcycle” as she converts the trash collected from the shores into works of art!
This event is FREE to attend. Please RSVP through Eventbrite!
Laura Ludwig Short Bio:
Laura Ludwig, director and founder of the Marine Debris & Plastics Program at the Center for Coastal Studies, focuses on an interdisciplinary approach to investigate and respond to abandoned, lost, discarded or end-of-life fishing gear, beach debris, microplastics, and other marine plastic debris issues. Since beginning the program in 2012, she has grown a 300-person volunteer "Beach Brigade" which supports an active year-round shoreline cleanup and debris data collection effort on Cape Cod.
Sarah Thornington Short bio:
The 2022 recipient of CARE (Creating A Responsible Environment) for the Cape and Islands Stewardship Award, Sarah Thornington is a portrait photographer & conservation artist who has lived on Cape Cod for the past 30 plus years. A passionate protector of the planet, she can often be found cleaning the beaches- alone or as part of the Center for Coastal Studies ‘Beach Brigade’ - creating with the marine-debris found to keep awareness on our single-use plastic problem or talking about the issues through workshops and presentations.
Time To Stop Kicking the Can: Addressing the Cape’s Wastewater Crisis
On Monday, February 27th from 6:30-8:30pm, head to Cape Cod Beer for an informative evening on the topic of wastewater on the Cape. Much needed changes are coming to address how to reduce the flow of wastewater loaded with nitrogen and other pollutants into our local waters. And these changes will be impacting all of us here on Cape Cod!
Start the evening by learning about the regional implications of regulations proposed by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, which are designed to improve coastal and inland water quality by accelerating reductions in nitrogen releases from traditional septic systems.
The evening will conclude by hearing about BCWC's neighborhood demonstration and testing project for innovative and advanced (I/A) septic system technologies and other non-traditional solutions for controlling nutrient loading in the Three Bays watershed. A bigger issue is how will the average homeowner pay for these septic system upgrades and sewering. Find out about the financing options available, including the newly revised Barnstable County Septic Management Loan Program.
BCWC Executive Director Zenas “Zee” Crocker grew up on Cape Cod and has ancestral roots in Osterville, Cotuit, and Barnstable. He spent over 30 years in the financial services industry in New York, Boston, and Asia before retiring in 2016. Zee’s extensive travels informed him about our increasingly compromised global environment, especially regarding air and water pollution. Unable to sit still in retirement, Zee agreed to take the helm of Barnstable Clean Water Coalition (BCWC) in June 2017 with a focus on addressing water quality conditions and developing nature-based solutions to improve and clean the Cape’s waters.
Brian is the Director of the Massachusetts Alternative Septic System Test Center and is a Senior Environmental Specialist at the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment. He is a Registered Sanitarian, Environmental Health Specialist, Title 5 Soil Evaluator and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator. Originally from Upstate New York, Brian has lived on Cape Cod for 15 years and currently resides in Mashpee.
Beneath the Waves: Local Shellfish and the Impacts of Ocean Acidification
Did you ever wonder where your oysters and clams come from? There's a good chance they were grown by a farmer. Head to Cape Cod Beer on Monday, March 27th from 6:30-8:30pm, for an educational discussion that dives into the local shellfish industry and learn about the different species grown, the variety of gear used, as well as the challenges facing shellfish growers.
The night will wrap up with an overview of ocean and coastal acidification and its expected impacts to people and natural resources in the region. Guest speakers, Abigail and Jennie, will also share intriguing preliminary results from a field investigation of the effects of coastal acidification on oyster and quahog growth and survival in the Three Bays estuary.
Abigail Archer: Abigail works as an Extension Agent (Fisheries & Aquaculture) for two entities with shared goals; the Barnstable County Cape Cod Cooperative Extension Marine Program and for WHOI Sea Grant. She works with shellfish growers, municipal natural resource managers, shellfish constables and river herring wardens to carry out monitoring and scientific research projects that answer their questions about marine resources. She also serves as staff for the Southeastern Massachusetts Aquaculture Center (SEMAC). The mission of SEMAC is to foster the sustainable development of private/public aquaculture endeavors within the southeastern region and throughout the Commonwealth of Massachusetts through education, research, technical and economic assistance, best management practices and demonstration projects.
Jennie Rheuban: Jennie is a Research Specialist in the Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and Research Coordinator for WHOI Sea Grant. Her research focuses on human impacts to coastal ecosystems, focusing on issues related to coastal chemistry and influences on natural resources. Her work combines observations, experiments, and modeling on topics such as coastal water quality, ocean acidification, and climate change.
Clean Water Wednesdays - 2022
Design with Nature on Cape Cod & the Islands
Join us Monday, April 25th at the brewery to hear from Jack Ahern, Emeritus Professor of Landscape Architecture at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, about how to preserve the beauty of the Cape with ecologically-based landscaping. The talk is a preview of Ahern’s 2022 book “Designing with Nature on Cape Cod and the Islands” which will be available for sale at the event.
This event is FREE to attend. Please RSVP through Eventbrite!
Jack Ahern, Emeritus Professor of Landscape Architecture, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Popular landscape practices on Cape Cod replace native ecological conditions with a generic “landscape of anywhere” and add to stresses and pollution of the Cape’s water resources. This talk will explain how to preserve the special environmental and visual character of the Cape and Islands through an “ecologically-based” approach to landscape design. This approach is based on an understanding of the Cape and Islands’ ecology and native plant communities, which are well-adapted to local soils and growing conditions. Ahern will discuss how these plant communities can be managed and designed as landscapes where people live, learn, work, and play. His approach will be illustrated with examples of designed landscapes on the Cape and Islands that have applied this approach. The talk is a preview of Ahern’s 2022 book “Designing with Nature on Cape Cod and the Islands” which will be available for sale at the event.
Jack Ahern Bio:
Jack Ahern, FASLA
Jack Ahern is an emeritus professor of landscape architecture at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He researches and writes about how ecology can be applied in landscape design – at multiple scales and in diverse contexts. Jack consults on plant community establishment and management for private clients and leading design firms – integrating his horticultural, design and ecological knowledge to create and manage memorable landscapes. His latest book is “Design with Nature on Cape Cod and the Islands” UMass Press 2022. He is a board member of the Barnstable Clean Water Coalition.
Cape Cod Groundwater Guardians
Join us Monday, May 23rd at the brewery to hear from Brian Baumgaertel and Kalliope Chute of the Cape Cod Groundwater Guardians for an informative look at the sole source aquifer that supplies water to all of Cape Cod. Brian and Kalliope will talk about the history of the Groundwater Guardians and the projects they have worked on, such as the podcast series “One Drop Leads to Another”. AmeriCorps Cape Cod members who serve on the team will bring fun activities that deepen our understanding of Cape Cod’s sole source aquifer, our unseen but critical water supply resource.
This event is FREE to attend. Please RSVP through Eventbrite!
Brian’s Baumgaertel Bio:
Brian is the Director of the Massachusetts Alternative Septic System Test Center and is a Senior Environmental Specialist at the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment. He is a Registered Sanitarian, Environmental Health Specialist, Title 5 Soil Evaluator and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator. Originally from Upstate New York, Brian has lived on Cape Cod for 15 years and currently resides in Mashpee, where he serves as Chair of the local Board of Health.
Kalliope’s Chute Bio
Kalliope is the Hazardous Materials Environmental Specialist at Barnstable County’s Cape Cod Cooperative Extension. Her program area is Water Quality and Hazardous Waste. The mission is to protect Cape Cod’s unique drinking water source, a largely unconfined, sole-source aquifer. She works towards educating Cape Codders of all ages on the value of our aquifer. Kalliope has a B.A. in Human Development from Lesley University and an M.S. in Organizational Leadership from Johns Hopkins University. She serves on the Cape Cod Hoarding Task Force and the Provincetown Board of Health. Kalliope lives in Provincetown where she has a 2-acre sea farm, an apiary, and assorted animals.
Discovering the Cape Cod Shore
This program will introduce participants to the variety of marine plants and animals along the Cape shoreline, their ecology, and the diverse habitats in which they are found. The presentation will include a survey of marine mollusks, crabs, echinoderms, sponges, horseshoe crabs, seaweeds, and other common species. You will learn about the great marine diversity in our local waters.
GIL NEWTON BIO
Gilbert Newton is a Cape Cod native who has been teaching environmental and marine science at Sandwich High School and the Cape Cod Community College for many years. His classes included coastal ecology, botany, coastal zone management, and environmental technology. In 2013 he became the first Director of the Sandwich STEM Academy. He completed his graduate work in biology at Florida State University. He has also taught classes for the Massachusetts Maritime Academy, the Falmouth Academy, Bridgewater State University and the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. He was also the Program Director for the Advanced Studies and Leadership Program at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy for 14 years. Gil is one of the founders of the Barnstable Land Trust and is the past president of the Association to Preserve Cape Cod. He is the author of several books about the Cape's shoreline including the recent Mysteries of Seaweed: Questions and Answers and Activities for the Cape Cod Beachcomber.
Meet Your Neighbors - Whales & Dolphins of Cape Cod
Join us at the brewery on July 20th to hear from Regina Asmutis-Silvia, the Executive Director of Whale and Dolphin Conservation-North America (WDC). Come learn about the over 12 species of whales and dolphins who come to Cape Cod to find their food in our nutrient-rich waters! During this talk, we will discuss the species who are commonly seen here, including how they have their own language, culture, and personalities! These whales also play an important role in our ecosystem - whales are the ocean’s gardeners who bring nutrients to the plants of the ocean when they poop at the surface. This is politely referred to as the ‘whale pump’ and plays a key role in our environment, our economy, and combating climate change.
This event is FREE to attend. Please RSVP through Eventbrite!
Regina Asmutis-Silvia Bio:
Regina Asmutis-Silvia is the Executive Director of Whale and Dolphin Conservation-North America (WDC), a non-profit organization based in Plymouth, MA. WDC works to save whales and dolphins and protect their ocean homes through outreach, policy, and science programs. Regina has been active in whale conservation, research, and education for over 30 years, with a focus on the whales who come to Massachusetts and Cape Cod.
Digging for Clean Water!
Nitrogen pollution from our septic systems is a major problem for Cape Cod’s waters. Please join us at the brewery on August 24th to learn about the Town of Barnstable’s Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan (CWMP), the work being done at the Massachusetts Alternative Septic System Test Center (MASSTC), and the different innovative and alternative (I/A) septic systems that are being used on Cape Cod. Working together, we can find solutions to reduce nitrogen in our local waters.
Our speakers include:
- Paul Ruszala, Senior Project Manager for the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works
- Emily Michele Olmsted, I/A Tracking Environmental Project Assistant for Barnstable County
- Maureen Thomas, Independent Water Resource Consultant and Project Manager for I/A septic system installations and currently working for KleanTu.
This event is FREE to attend. Please RSVP through Eventbrite!
Paul Ruszala, P.E. is a Senior Project Manager for the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works. He is responsible for implementation of the Town’s Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan (CWMP), which includes the design, permitting and construction for 190 miles of new sewer, associated pump stations and wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Prior to accepting a position with the Town in 2021, Paul gained 15 years of experience working as a consulting engineer on management, planning, design and construction of water and wastewater projects.
Emily Michele Olmsted is a Grade 4 wastewater treatment plant operator and a Soil Evaluator, has been working with Barnstable County’s Department of Health and Environment for more than seven years. She received a Bachelor of Science in environmental sciences from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. At MASSTC, she managed Barnstable County’s I/A Septic System Tracking Program for five years and is currently serving as the Quality Assurance Manager for the ongoing project studying virus attenuation in varying soil depths of a leach field.
Maureen Thomas is a water resource consultant focusing on nitrogen-reducing septic systems to improve water quality. Currently Maureen consults part-time with KleanTu,LLC, fabricator of the NitROE enhanced I/A treatment system, where she manages I/A septic system installations on the Cape and Martha’s Vineyard. She also works part-time as Falmouth’s Community Preservation Coordinator. Maureen was a water resource specialist with the Buzzards Bay Coalition (BBC) for 3.5 years and a consultant with them for an additional year. With BBC, she worked on various wastewater projects including the West Falmouth Shoreline Septic Remediation Project and the Layered Soil Treatment Area Demonstration Project. Maureen received her master’s in Public Administration from UMass Boston and her bachelor’s in Geography & Biology from Bridgewater State University.
This month's topic: Cleaning Our Water One Oyster at a Time!
Let’s dive into the world of oysters! Join our speakers on Monday, September 19th to learn the importance of oysters for improving water quality, providing a livelihood, and contributing to the Cape’s blue economy.
Kristen Rathjen will introduce a pilot program to remove nitrogen from impaired estuaries by growing oysters that can be sold commercially. This program, now in its third year, continues to demonstrate positive and productive outcomes from collaboration with the Town of Falmouth and aquaculture contractors. It is an exciting opportunity to simultaneously improve water quality and stimulate the economy, which benefits many stakeholders.
Mark Begley will take us on a journey of oyster farming in Barnstable Harbor. From tiny seed oysters the size of sand grains to ice cold oysters in the harvest boat, follow one oyster farmer’s experiences over decades of growing oysters year-round on Cape Cod. Join Mark for an illustrated talk on the joys and challenges of farming shellfish.
This event is free to attend but RSVP is required!
Kristen Rathjen joined Science Wares, Inc. in 2018 to assist with technical consulting and implementation of pilot projects. She holds a Master of Science in Marine, Estuarine and Environmental Science from University of Maryland and a Bachelor of Science in Biology from Southampton College of Long Island University. Kristen has worked with private firms, research institutions and government agencies to evaluate technologies, navigate regulatory pathways, and implement projects designed to improve ecosystems.
Mark Begley has been growing Beach Point Oysters in Barnstable Harbor since 1999. He was born in Boston, where he met his wife, Linda. Mark is a retired engineer with a Master of Science in Engineering from Northeastern University. In the late 80’s, Mark and Linda moved to their favorite place, Cape Cod, where they raised their three children. They operate their shellfish farm under their own company, Beach Point Shellfish, LLC. In addition to farming, Mark is on the Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Aquaculture Association and the Board of Directors of the East Coast Shellfish Growers Association.
Clean Water Wednesdays - 2020
Innovative/Alternative Septic Systems
John Smith, the president of KleanTu, will provide summary information and performance data on KleanTu's two Innovative Alternative (I/A) technologies, the NitROE® Waste-Water Treatment System (WWTS) and the SanTOETM WWTS), for enhanced total nitrogen (TN) reduction, that are now being deployed and demonstrated on both Martha’s Vineyard and Cape Cod. Both the NitROE® and the SanTOETM WWTS’s are demonstrating the ability to consistently produce a highly treated wastewater, including significant TN reduction, in a low cost manner.
Click here to view John Smith's presentation from CWW.
George Heufelder, co-Director of the Massachusetts Alternative Septic System Test Center will provide information on some of the innovative/alternative systems being tested.
We’ll be joined by Abigail Archer (Fisheries and Aquaculture Specialist, Woods Hole Sea Grant/Cape Cod Cooperative Extension Marine Program) and Betsy Gladfelter (Conservation Commissioner, Town of Falmouth). Abigail will discuss the life cycle and population status of river herring and the history of fish ladders on Cape Cod. Betsy will talk about the restoration of the Coonamessett River in Falmouth and the restoration’s impact on river herring habitat and fish passage.
Jack Ahern, Professor of Landscape Architecture at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, and this talk is Designing with Nature on Cape Cod and the Islands. His talk will explain how to preserve the special environmental and visual character of the Cape and Islands through an “ecologically-based” approach to landscape design. This approach starts with an understanding of the Cape and Islands’ native plants and plant communities, which are well-adapted to local soils and growing conditions. Ahern will discuss how these plant communities can be designed for landscapes where people live, learn, work, and play. His approach will be illustrated with examples of landscapes on the Cape and Islands that have applied this approach. The talk is a preview of Ahern’s upcoming book “Designing with Nature on Cape Cod and the Islands”.
To view the slides from the presentation, click here.
Clean Water Wednesdays - 2019
For our first Clean Water Wednesday on August 7th at 6:30 pm at Cape Cod Beer, we are excited to have Bryan Horsley from the Association to Preserve Cape Cod (APCC) as our featured speaker.
Bryan is APCC’s Restoration Technician and the Program Manager for the Cape Cod Cyanobacteria Monitoring Program. His presentation will focus on monitoring for harmful cyanobacteria blooms in Cape Cod’s freshwater lakes and ponds. Harmful cyanobacteria blooms are an emerging issue in our local freshwater lakes and ponds, which is concerning because they can release potent cyanotoxins into the environment that pose direct health threats to humans, pets and wildlife. The cause of these blooms seems to be a combination of warming temperatures, altered rainfall patterns, and ever increasing nutrient enrichment of our waters.
Bryan’s talk will cover basic ecology of cyanobacteria, associated environmental and human health threats, APCC's Cape Cod Cyanobacteria Monitoring Program, and he will finish with an overview of actions that can be taken to help alleviate the problem.
Click here to learn more about APCC's Cyanobacteria Monitoring.
Join the experts for a beer! And a Raw Bar!
September 11th, our panel will focus on Oysters and the shell-fishing business on Cape Cod. We’ll be joined by three experts in this field; Liz Lewis from Town of Barnstable (TOWN), John Townes from BARS (RECREATIONAL) and Dave Ryan from Cape Cod Oyster (COMMERCIAL). Each speaker in our panel will be representing a different aspect of shellfishing.
Liz Lewis will be discussing The Town of Barnstable’s Shellfish Propagation Program. Their goal is to supplement the wild populations of quahogs and oysters and take some of the fishing pressure off the wild stocks. Everything that they grow goes out to the public for anyone with a Town of Barnstable Shellfish Permit to harvest. Liz will be touching on the basics of how we grow our shellfish and manage the fishery.
Liz Lewis has been the Shellfish Technician for the Town of Barnstable for over five years and has been working for Natural Resources for over seven. She is a graduate of the University of Vermont with a Bachelor’s Degree in Natural Resources and a concentration in Resource Ecology and is currently working on a Master’s in Public Policy. Her lifetime love of the ocean brought her back to Massachusetts where she worked as a Program Educator at the New England Aquarium for six years. Looking for more time outdoors, she found her true passion- growing quahogs and oysters here on Cape Cod. Liz loves to grow shellfish and help people learn about the resources in their own backyard.
John Townes will be talking about the Triploid Oyster and its importance in rejuvenating the oyster fishery on the east coast from Maine to Louisiana, as well as the Pacific Northwest.
John retired and moved with his wife Leigh to Cotuit in 2017 and almost immediately they became members of BARS. They both quickly discovered a passion for shellfishing on The Cape and have been active in many of BARS’ projects and events including helping the Department of Natural Resources planting and harvesting quahogs, and supporting their Clamming for Kids/Everyone classes. John is the new Vice President of BARS.
Dave Ryan will give us an overview of commercial shellfishing and it’s role on Cape Cod.
BIO: Dave Ryan is Director of Operations for Cape Cod Oyster Company, and a Marine Biologist by training. He discovered and fell in love with the oyster business when he first graduated from college. Working in the oyster hatchery at A.R.C. with early industry innovators like Dick Krause, Sue Talin, and Gene Petrovitz, he realized it was the right business for him. “ It was a way of life, not just a job”. Dave is as enthusiastic about what he does at 55 years old as he was at 20.
Join us as we deep dive into the topic of bogs and their impact on our environment. Alex Hackman will be leading our panel, Alex has worked on some of the largest wetland/bog restoration projects in the state.
Title of Alex’s Talk:
Wetland Restoration on Retired Cranberry Farmland: Context, Science, and Status
After retirement, many cranberry farms require active intervention to rejuvenate historic wetlands and address legacy agricultural impacts. Decades of sand application over native soils, ditching, and use of water controls alter natural hydrology and limit the ability of the land to recover. This talk will describe efforts in Massachusetts to assess, design, implement, and study ecological restoration projects on former cranberry farmland. These issues are important to consider and act upon now, given the current wave of farm retirements, on-going development pressures, water quality concerns, and climate change.
Alex Hackman is a Restoration Ecologist for the Massachusetts Division of Ecological Restoration (DER), and manager of a new state program dedicated to restoring wetlands on retired cranberry farmland. Since 2007, he has managed dam removals, culvert replacements, stream channel and floodplain re-construction, and cranberry bog wetland restoration projects. Alex is a Certified Ecological Restoration Practitioner (CERP) from the Society for Ecological Restoration (SER), sits on the SER-New England Board of Directors, and won the chapter’s 2018 award for excellence in restoration. He is a founding member of Living Observatory (www.livingobservatory.com) – an organization that links science, practice, and learning about restored wetlands on retired cranberry farmland. Alex lives in Medford with his sweetheart Keri-Nicole, is passionate about public service and helping Mother Nature, and is an avid but terrible kayak fisherman.
Cranberry farming and the effects of inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides to groundwater.
Leo Cakounes is a farmer and owner of Cape Farm Supply and Cranberry Company. Leo and Andrea operate the largest organic cranberry bog on Cape Cod located in Harwich. They offer seasonal tours where visitors can learn about the 12 month operation of a cranberry bog.
Join us for our next Clean Water Wednesday, November 13th, and we’ll be talking about Sea Level Rise! We’ll be joined by two experts Greg Berman and Mark Borrelli who will talk about why we as Cape Codders should be thinking about the impact of Sea-Level Rise!
Local Sea Level Rise: History, Projections, & Impacts
Rising seas have played a huge role in the creation and shaping of the Cape Cod shoreline over many millennia. This session will cover historic shoreline changes due to glacial activity, as well as down-scaled projections of sea level rise for our area. Damage from recent storms will be shown in the context of increasing water levels and visualizations of future impacts to the town of Barnstable will be presented.
Gregory A. Berman, PG, GISP is a coastal processes specialist for Woods Hole Sea Grant (WHSG) and the Cape Cod Cooperative Extension (CCCE) where he provides technical assistance on coastal geology topics: shoreline change, erosion control alternatives, potential effects of various human activities on coastal landforms, coastal flood plains, coastal hazards, hazard mitigation analyses, and dune restoration techniques.
The Science behind Sea Level Rise: Natural Variability and Human-Induced Change
A brief, science-based introduction about what we know regarding sea level rise. Placing the natural variability of climate change and sea level rise in context within geological and human time scales. This presentation will cover seminal discoveries, recent projections and ongoing work.
Dr. Mark Borrelli is a Coastal Geologist. He is the Director of the Coastal Processes and Ecosystems Laboratory, or CAPE Lab, a joint research effort between the Center for Coastal Studies in Provincetown and the University of Massachusetts at Boston. His research interests include coastal sedimentary processes, in general, and understanding how storms, sea level rise and human impacts affect the coast, in particular.